ASTRON is composed of four major departments:
Together with prof.dr. Michael A. Garrett, scientific director and director general of ASTRON, and with dr. Marco de Vos, managing director and dpt. director general of ASTRON, they form the institute's Management Team.
ASTRON operates under the umbrella of the Dutch national research council, the Netherlands Organisation for Scientific Research (NWO), which formally also employs all ASTRON staff.